City Sanitation Plans according to the NUSP

Compiled by:
Leonellha Barreto Dillon (seecon international gmbh)
Adapted from:
MOUD (Editor) (2008)

Executive Summary

A City Sanitation Plan is a comprehensive, holistic and city-wide plan addressing universal access, safe collection, treatment and disposal of 100% liquid and solid waste. With the launching of the National Urban Sanitation Policy the Government of India exhorted all Urban Local Bodies to prepare their CSP, providing them with a Framework to assist them in the process. The Annexure II presents a set of generic elements for planning, implementing and maintaining city-wide sanitation, which shall be adapted considering the local context, the needs, availability of financial and human resources. This factsheet describe shortly this Annexure.

Disclaimer: Links within the texts to additional information, concepts and tools are SSWM editor’s inputs and might not represent the view or practices of GIZ.

Purpose of City Sanitation Plans

The City Sanitation Plan is a comprehensive document which describes the short, medium and long term measures for the issues related to governance, technical, financial, capacity enhancement, awareness raising and pro-poor interventions to achieve the goal of NUSP to create community driven, totally sanitised, healthy and liveable cities and towns.

The City Sanitation Plan’s purpose is to support Urban Local Bodies (ULB) and NGOs, CBOs, citizens and private sector agencies to take concrete steps to achieve 100% sanitation in their respective cities. Although each city should prepare a framework adapted to its needs and local situation, the following figure depicts the process that should be followed when planning, implementing and evaluating a City Sanitation Plan.

Generic Elements of Planning, Implementation and M&E of City Wide Sanitation

Generic Elements of Planning, Implementation and M&E of City Wide Sanitation. Source: MOUD (2008)

Compulsory Contents of the CSP according to the NUSP

The City Sanitation Plans (CSP) are prepared by the Urban Local Body (ULB) in collaboration with a group of experts, and presented to the City Sanitation Task Force for approval. While the exact contents of the CSP may vary depending on the local situation, the following aspects must be covered:

Status Report and Plan for Different Sectors

The City Sanitation Plan should contain an assessment of the current situation and a immediate, short, medium and long term plan for improvement of the following services and aspects (see also chapters exploring and understand your system):

Implementation Plan

The City Sanitation Plan should contain an implementation plan and delivery mechanism for each of the components listed above. The ULB’s in-house resources will be deployed for these tasks, however due to personnel shortage or lack of expertise and competency, the following service providers will need to be contracted or commissioned: urban planning agencies, technology providers, private consultants and NGOs. Two broad kinds of services will be required: (1) hardware related capacities that have to do with implementing physical works (see also hardware tools in wastewater treatment) and (2) software related capacities e.g. social mobilisation, institutional development, training, etc. (see also creating an enabling environment and awareness raising in wastewater treatment).

Monitoring and Evaluation

The City Sanitation Task Force (CSTF) and the ULB need to include a section about monitoring and evaluation of the implementation as an integral part of the City Sanitation Plan (CSP) (see also participatory monitoring and evaluation). Section 4 of the Chapter on National Award Scheme for Sanitation for India Cities lists Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) indicators in terms of output, process and outcome related parameters that should be followed. For the evaluation and monitoring of 100% sanitation milestone achievements, a number of tools can be considered:

An important aspect of monitoring and evaluation is to make the findings and reports available to the public so that feedback and suggestions can be received from other stakeholders. Sharing key features in press briefings are also another way of mobilising city stakeholders and eliciting their cooperation.

Operation & Maintenance and Service Delivery Systems

The operation and maintenance (O&M) systems and procedures need to be institutionalised in order to be effective as to achieve and sustain the goal of 100% sanitation coverage. A city-wide perspective is needed when planning for O&M, including not only the new infrastructure but the already existing systems in all the different sectors: maintenance of public latrines (removal of excreta), solid waste management, maintenance and repairing of sewer systems, monitoring of on-site systems, sludge clearance services, cleaning of storm water drainage (nahlas), street sweeping, etc. A comprehensive O&M protocol should be prepared as part of the CSP by the ULB with the support of the CSTF and specialists, in which all the O&M activities should be listed out, including the assignation of responsibilities, the specific procedures and the related costs. Special emphasis has to be given to the financial implications of improving current and future service levels, particularly on how to recover or fund the costs of O&M (see also financing).

Steps Towards Preparation of CSP

According to the National Urban Sanitation Policy, the following preparatory actions should be carried out in order to prepare the City Sanitation Plan:

City Sanitation Task Force

A City Sanitation Task Force (CSTF) should be formed, composed by representatives from agencies directly responsible for sanitation (divisions and departments of the ULB, PHED, etc.), agencies indirectly involved or impacted, eminent persons, practitioners, representatives of the different stakeholders sectors, NGOs and sanitary workers. The CSTF is responsible for launching the 100% Sanitation Campaign, coordinating the activities for awareness raising (see also awareness raising in wastewater treatment), revising and approving the CSP and implementing the plan defined in the CSP.

Baseline Data Collection and Creating Database

Collection of primary data for baseline status report in Pandharpur, Maharashtra

Collection of primary data for baseline status report in Pandharpur, Maharashtra. Source: L. BARRETO DILLON (2010)

The ULB in collaboration with experts will collect data on demographic, institutional, technical, social and financial aspects related to sanitation for the preparation of status report (see also baseline data collection). As a first source, the census, the ULB and PHED data will be used, together with different assessment exercises for instance in social or financial issues. In addition, primary data might be gathered by consultants to fill-in the gaps. All the data collected must be amenable to linking to an existing or proposed Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the city. It is also recommended that participatory approaches are used together with observation and community and household interactions.

Awareness Generation and Launch of 100% Sanitation Campaign

A citywide 100% Sanitation Campaign will be launched to generate awareness among the population. Ideally the campaign in a city should be timed with the Government of India National Media Campaign and the awareness raising activities planned at State Level (see also the chapter awareness raising for demand creation). The Sanitation Campaign should be planned in a long-term, with an intensive first round, followed by successive rounds focussing on specific aspects or stakeholders (see also stakeholder identification). Different sectors of society should be engaged to work together with the ULB and the CSTF: a professional media agency to define the message, communication channels and information material for different stakeholders (see also creating information material); NGOs to work directly with slum-dwellers bringing the messages door-to-door; school and colleges to propagate the messages among the students (e.g. school campaigns); newspapers, television and radio channels to announce the activities of each round of the Sanitation Campaign (see also media campaigns through posters and flyers, video and radio).

Specifying Legal and Regulatory Institutional Responsibilities

The CSTF will be in charge of examining the existing laws and regulations regarding standards for safe sanitation (toilets arrangements, collection, treatment and final disposal of treated water) that exist at municipal level and national level (CPHEEO and Environmental Act). The CSTF will then lay out a set of recommendations to the ULB to ensure the achievement of the goal of 100% sanitation, including a set of mechanisms to improve the adherence to the standards, monitoring and regulatory process, implementation of incentives, and creation of a system of user charges and fees (see also water charges).

Capacity Building and Training

Developing human resources within the ULB’s departments or service provider agencies in charge of water and sanitation services is crucial to ensure the sustainability of the actions planned in the CSP. Two kinds of interventions will be necessary to build the capacity within the staff of the ULB: (1) training courses to build up skills and aptitudes among ULB officials to carry out the activities related to sanitation and water provision in an efficient and effective manner. The training courses should allow the participants to have access to the existing knowledge as well as have practical experience with different kind of technologies, management regimes, organisational systems and processes, institutional relationships, participatory methods and consultation techniques, among other; (2) organisational restructuring within the ULBs with the required working systems (e.g. bundling and unbundling of functions), linkages and organisational environment to allow the ULB personnel to put their new skills to productive use. National and State Level Resource Organisations such as NGOs, specialist institutions, private training agencies, etc. need to be brought together by the City Sanitation Task Force to assist in this huge agenda.

Planning and Financing

The implementing agency, which in most of the cases is the ULB, will be in charge of preparing the plans for the city including institutional, social, technical and financial aspects to improve the sanitation situation of the city. The ULB might take the assistance of specialists, who will support on creating comprehensive plans at short, medium and long term for the entire city. The City Sanitation Plans should be realistic plans that can be attained with the existing resources. The Government of India’s JNNURM, UIDSSMT and BSUP, as well as the State Government’s own resources (see also government contributions), are the key programmes to finance the actions of the CSP. Furthermore, a special emphasis has to be given to cost recovery through connection fees and user charges, and other sources of finance (see also water charges, water pricing general and financing).

Key Aspects to be Considered in all Sectors

The following aspects are to be considered when planning interventions in all sectors: water supply, access to toilets, wastewater management, storm water management and solid waste management.

Technical Options

Choosing technologies to cope with the challenges of providing urban India with sanitation services is not an easy task, as the demand grows exponentially, the density of the urban areas are high, constraints of land tenure are an issue in poor areas and low budgets are usually assigned. In order to help planners and ULB, the NUSP give the following suggestions:

  • A holistic approach (see also IWRM, sustainable sanitation, linking up sustainable sanitation and water management) is required when choosing a technology, considering institutional, financial, environmental, behavioural and cultural parameters. This will allow choosing only those technologies that can be afforded (capital and O&M costs), operated and maintained by the assigned institutions, and more important accepted by the people so they are willing to pay for the service provision.
  • Up-grading and retrofitting the existing sanitation systems, so they perform in a sanitary and safe manner should be the first interventions.
  • Technologies need to be incremental, considering the option of on-site sanitation systems that can be up-graded into more sophisticated centralised systems in the future (see also chapter wastewater treatment).
  • Technologies that promote recycle and reuse of treated wastewater should be encouraged (see also chapter reuse and recharge).
  • There is not only one valid technology. To be able to address the city-wide nature of the challenge of providing 100% sanitation, a mix of options should be considered.
  • Technologies need to be planned for the full cycle of arrangements: from the toilet unit, conveyance, transport, final treatment and disposal into the environment (see also sanitation systems).
  • Operation and maintenance, particularly the assignment of responsibilities and the financing, has to be kept in view when planning technology options.

Reaching the Un-Served Populations and the Urban Poor

The City Sanitation Plan has to serve as a road map to extend good quality sanitation services to the poor dwellers of the city. The NUSP distinguishes between public sanitation and community sanitation, the first being intended for general public or floating populations, whereas community toilets are those where an identifiable core group of users exist. The Government of India through the NUSP is particularly concerned about the facilities for notified and non-notified slums.

Slum in Vasai Virar Maharashtra.

Slum in Vasai Virar Maharashtra. Source: L. BARRETO DILLON (2011)

 

There are many obstacles when planning sanitation for the urban poor:

 

In order to overcome all the obstacles, the NUSP proposes the following strategies:

City Reward Schemes

Cities can institute their own reward schemes to incentivise local stakeholders to participate in the process of improvements for reaching 100% sanitation. Rewards could be given following the national guidelines on an area basis. For example, the following could be units for rewards: municipal wards, colonies or residents’ associations, schools, colleges and other educational institutions, market and bazaar committees, city-based institutions like railway stations, bus Depot, office Bhawans, etc. The reward may contain a nominal amount of money for further upkeep and maintenance of sanitary systems, improvements in infrastructure targeted to better health and environment, as also special purposes like holding Environment Fairs, Health Camps, etc. A scroll of honour, public function to accord recognition, and rating of wards may also be considered as a part of rewards.

References

MOUD (Editor) (2008): National Urban Sanitation Policy. New Delhi: Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD). URL [Accessed: 07.10.2010].

Further Readings

Reference icon

ADB (Editor) (2009): India’s Sanitation for All. How to make it happen. (= Water for all, 18). Manila: : Asian Development Bank. URL [Accessed: 06.11.2012].

This discussion paper examines the current state of sanitation services in India in relation to two goals—Goal 7 of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which calls on countries to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without improved sanitation facilities (from 1990 levels); and India’s more ambitious goal of providing “Sanitation for All” by 2012, established under its Total Sanitation Campaign.


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CPHEEO (Editor) (2012): Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment. Part A: Engineering. New Delhi: The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. URL [Accessed: 04.02.2013].

This manual is part A of the updated manuals on sewerage and sewage treatment, prepared by the Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), a department under the Ministry of Urban Development, India. These manuals aim at meeting the professional needs of practising engineers dealing with the sanitation sector in the country that focuses on achieving the goal of 'sanitation for all' within a reasonable timeframe. Part A of the manual is on Engineering aspects related to sewerage system.


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CPHEEO (Editor) (2012): Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment. Part B: Operation and Maintenance. New Delhi: The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. URL [Accessed: 04.02.2013].

This manual is part B of the updated manuals on sewerage and sewage treatment, prepared by the Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), a department under the Ministry of Urban Development, India. These manuals aim at meeting the professional needs of practising engineers dealing with the sanitation sector in the country that focuses on achieving the goal of 'sanitation for all' within a reasonable timeframe. Part B of the manual is on Operation and Maintenance aspects related to sewerage system.


Reference icon

CPHEEO (Editor) (2012): Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment. Part C: Management. New Delhi: The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. URL [Accessed: 04.02.2013].

This manual is part C of the updated manuals on sewerage and sewage treatment, prepared by the Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), a department under the Ministry of Urban Development, India. These manuals aim at meeting the professional needs of practising engineers dealing with the sanitation sector in the country that focuses on achieving the goal of 'sanitation for all' within a reasonable timeframe. Part C of the manual is on Management aspects related to sewerage system.


Reference icon

CPHEEO (Editor) (1993): Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment. New Delhi: The Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO), Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India. URL [Accessed: 06.11.2012].

This Manual on Sewerage and Sewage Treatment brought out by the Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organisation, Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India, aims to meet the professional needs of the practising Engineers dealing with sanitation sector in the India for achieving the goal of “sanitation for all” within a reasonable time frame. It consists of 33 separate documents.


Reference icon

GIZ (Editor) (2013): City Sanitation Plan - A Primer. Newl Delhi: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.

This brochure is a good starting point for the issue of City Sanitation Plans. It covers what a CSP is, why a CSP is required, which stakeholders are involved in a CSP preparation and how a CSP is prepared.


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WSP (Editor) (2008): Technology Options for Urban Sanitation in India. A Guide to Decision-Making. pdf presentation. New Delhi: Water and Sanitation Program (WSP). URL [Accessed: 26.03.2010].

These guidance notes are designed to provide state governments and urban local bodies with additional information on available technologies on sanitation. The notes also aid in making an informed choice and explain the suitability of approaches.


Case Studies

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KMC; GIZ; IMACS (2011): City Sanitation Plan for Kochi. New Delhi: Municipal Corporation Nashik in cooperation with GIZ and ICRA Management Consulting Services Limited (IMaCS). URL [Accessed: 05.11.2012].

This Brochure is a succinct overview of the City Sanitation Plan for City of Nashik in order to recognise the stress areas in the sanitation sector and establish priorities in the intervention areas along the defined strategic guidelines.


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NMC; GIZ; IMACS (2011): City Sanitation Plan for Nashik. Nashik: Municipal Corporation Nashik in cooperation with GIZ and ICRA Management Consulting Services Limited (IMaCS). URL [Accessed: 06.11.2012].

This Brochure is a succinct overview of the City Sanitation Plan for City of Nashik in order to recognise the stress areas in the sanitation sector and establish priorities in the intervention areas along the defined strategic guidelines.


Reference icon

RMC; GIZ; CDD (2011): City Sanitation Plan for Raipur. Raipur: Municipal Corporation Raipur in cooperation with GIZ and Consortium for Dissemination of DEWATS. URL [Accessed: 06.11.2012].

This Brochure is a succinct overview of the City Sanitation Plan for City of Raipur in order to recognise the stress areas in the sanitation sector and establish priorities in the intervention areas along the defined strategic guidelines.


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SMC; GIZ; DCC (2011): City Sanitation Plan for Shimla. Shimla: Municipal Corporation Shimla in cooperation with GIZ and Consortium for Dissemination of DEWATS. URL [Accessed: 06.11.2012].

This Brochure is a succinct overview of the City Sanitation Plan for City of Shimla in order to recognise the stress areas in the sanitation sector and establish priorities in the intervention areas along the defined strategic guidelines.


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TMC; GIZ; IMACS (2011): City Sanitation Plan for Tirupati. Tirupati: Municipal Corporation Tirupati in cooperation with GIZ and ICRA Management Consulting Services Limited (IMaCS). URL [Accessed: 06.11.2012].

This Brochure is a succinct overview of the City Sanitation Plan for City of Tirupati in order to recognise the stress areas in the sanitation sector and establish priorities in the intervention areas along the defined strategic guidelines.


Training Material

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ASCI (Editor) (2010): City Sanitation Plan Preparation. Sharing Few Early Lessons. New Delhi: Administrative Staff College of India (ASCI). URL [Accessed: 06.11.2012].

An informative slideshow with many pictures about the typical situation in Indian Cities and the City Sanitation Plans of Uttar Pradesh Cities.


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CEMDS (Editor) (2011): City Sanitation Plan for Raisen, Ashta and Khajurao Towns in MP. Vienna: Centre for Environmental Management & Decision Support (CEMDS). URL [Accessed: 06.11.2012].

This slideshow is about the City Sanitation Plans for Raisen, Ashta and Khajurao in the state Madhya Pradesh, India.


Reference icon

Government of Andhra Pradesh (Editor) (2010): Status of CSPs in ULBs of Andhra Pradesh. Workshop. Hyderabad: Government of Andhra Pradesh. URL [Accessed: 06.11.2012].

This slideshow presents the Status of the City Sanitation Plans in the Urban Local Bodies of the state Andhra Pradesh, India.


Reference icon

NUSP (Editor) (n.y.): City Sanitation Plans Self Review Checklist. New Delhi: National Urban Sanitation Policy. URL [Accessed: 06.11.2012].

This Checklist will help cities assess the quality of the draft version of the CSP. The indicators in the Checklist are drawn to measure whether the key dimensions of sanitation are addressed in the contents; and ensure that the process followed in the preparation of the CSP was consultative and has full ownership of the city stakeholders.


Reference icon

USAID INDIA (Editor) (2010): Workshop on Formulation of State Sanitation Strategy & Making of City Sanitation Plans. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Agency for International Development. URL [Accessed: 06.11.2012].

This slideshow from a workshop on Formulation of State Sanitation Strategy & Making of City Sanitation Plans presents the USAID FIRE (D) Approach for Preparing City Sanitation Plans.


Important Weblinks

http://www.urbanindia.nic.in/CSP.htm [Accessed: 06.11.2012]

This is the web page of the Ministry of Urban Development of the Government of India. This section, completely devoted to preparation of CSP offers a set of presentations, in which different agencies show the methodology for the constitution of the CSTF.

http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in [Accessed: 06.11.2012]

This web page contains various contributions from the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) about water supply, water pollution, solid waste, habitat and urbanisation, population, etc.