About the STEP “Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy in India”
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About the STEP “Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy in India”

Disclaimer: Links within the texts to additional information, concepts and tools are SSWM editor’s inputs and might not represent the view or practices of GIZ.

Introduction

The STEP “Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy in India” is a platform for knowledge sharing, promotion and dissemination of the activities carried out under the Indo-German Bilateral Program between the Indian Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH in India in the framework of the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP).

To improve the sanitation situation in urban areas, the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) sanctioned the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) in October 2008. Under its programme ‘Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy (SNUSP)’, the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH supports the MoUD of India in the implementation of aforementioned policy guideline. Furthermore, GIZ is currently working together with relevant actors towards the improvement of the sanitation management and planning at National and State Levels, as well as facilitating the knowledge sharing and awareness raising at different levels. The objective of this STEP is therefore to share the accumulated knowledge gathered by GoI, MoUD, GIZ and partners during the implementation of the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP) in an effort to improve the sanitation situation of the urban areas in India.

 

The Specific Objectives of the STEP SNUSP

Background

Germany has been cooperating with India by providing expertise through GIZ for more than 50 years. Today, GIZ focus its efforts in giving technical advice and strengthening the capacity of local actors in the following sectors (see also strengthening enforcement bodies in wastewater treatment): Energy, Sustainable Economic Development and Environmental Policy, Conservation and Sustainable Use of Natural Resources (GIZ 2012, Introduction). Among many activities, GIZ in India is actively supporting the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) in the implementation of the National Urban Sanitation Policy.

In 2008 the GIZ Delegation in India supported the Municipal Corporations of Shimla, Varanasi, Nashik, Raipur, Kochi and Tirupati in selected interventions under Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). In March 2010, the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) requested GIZ to support the preparation of City Sanitation Plans (CSP) (see also City Sanitation Plans according to the NUSP) in these six cities, activity that was carried out as part of the Advisory Services in Environmental Management (ASEM) Program of GIZ (GIZ 2011). Together with other experts such as ICRA Management Consulting Services (ImaCS) and the Consortium for Dissemination of DEWATS (CDD), GIZ coordinated the process serving as well as technical advisor and knowledge sharing platform among the different stakeholders.

This support to the preparation of the CSPs resulted in the continuation of the technical co-operation in the field of urban sanitation through a new programme called “Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy” (WALTHER 2012).

Logo Cooperation India-Germany. Source: GIZ (2012)

Logo Cooperation India-Germany. Source: GIZ (2012)

GIZ Programme “Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy” (SNUSP)

In 2011 GIZ initiated a programme to support the Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) as well as selected State Governments and Urban Local Bodies (ULB’s) in the implementation of the NUSP. The programme gives a special emphasis to improving sanitation in urban poor pockets by ensuring inclusiveness in infrastructure development and a city-wide approach.

Aim of the Programme

The objective of this programme is to implement and operationalise sanitation infrastructure at national, state and city level, as well as the sanitation sector as a whole, especially in the poorer parts of the cities (adapted from WALTHER 2012). The overall outcome of this support is to enable the Government of India in achieving its commitments under MDG 7 and the 2nd World Water Decade (see also access to water and sanitation).

Approach

Based on the three-tiered approach, the programme works on 3 different levels: national, state and city level. This ensures the achievement of desired outcomes at each tier, as well as constant and consistent interaction and knowledge sharing to support the connectivity among all tiers (GIZ 2012, Fact Sheet).

The three-tier approach of the programme. Source: DUBE (2012)

The three-tier approach of the programme. Source: DUBE (2012)

In this framework, GIZ is currently supporting (DUBE 2012):

In order to operationalise the “three-tiered approach”, a Sanitation and Environment Cell has been established at MOUD to coordinate and upscale GIZ activities at national level. At the state level, State Steering Committees are being created with the participation of the State Departments of Urban Development and/or Water and Sanitation, as well as key institutions to streamline the implementation process. At the city level, following the mandate of the NUSP, a multi-stakeholder platform called City Sanitation Task Force has been created during the preparation of the City Sanitation Plans and it is this entity the one that coordinates the implementation and supports the identified needed interventions.

In order to ensure a holistic approach to urban sanitation, the interventions in the selected cities not only are intended to build infrastructure but also have an strong emphasis on refining city database, ensuring inclusiveness through various participatory approaches, developing/streamlining various institutional and legal frameworks and converging with other national/state level urban infrastructure development projects (WALTHER 2012) (see also participatory mapping and building an institutional framework in wastewater treatment).

Components of the Programme

The programme comprises three broad components outlined in the following figure: (1) National and State Level, (2) State and City Level and (3) Information, Education and Communication (IEC). The diagram indicates the levels of engagement as well as the cross-cutting subjects (IEC) that are needed to support the alignment with NUSP at all levels, but also taking into account the ground level realities:

Components of the programme and their respective objectives. Source: GIZ (2012)

Components of the programme and their respective objectives. Source: GIZ (2012, Fact Sheet)

The planned and running activities of the project are performed simultaneously in the frame of the three components:

Component 1 focuses on the National and State Level, through which GIZ is defining management and planning instruments for the improvement of the sanitation sector. At the State Level, GIZ works mainly with the MoUD, supporting them by evaluating existing CSPs, and gathering lessons learned and best practices. GIZ and MoUD are preparing jointly a Handbook to serve as reference for improving the quality in future CSPs. At the State Level, GIZ is currently supporting 7 selected states (i.e. Himachal Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh) in improving or preparing their State Sanitation Strategy (SSS) . “It is envisaged that key issues concerning capacity enhancement, outsourcing urban services in issues such as public/community toilet complex and sewerage and legal framework will be addressed in the SSS through GIZ support, which will enhance service delivery at city level” (WALTHER 2012) (see also creating an enabling environment)

With Component 2 GIZ supports the planning, implementing, operating and maintaining sustainable city-wide sanitation in 10 Urban Local Bodies (Municipal Corporations of Shimla, Varanasi, Nashik, Raipur, Kochi, Tirupati, Dewas, Vasai Virar, Vikarabad and Mysore). As GIZ emphasises the holistic approach of city-wide sanitation, which includes solid waste management, water supply and storm water management, the programme strengthens the service delivery of the cities (see also  the chapters water purification, water distribution, solid waste and stormwater management). “It is envisioned that this program will introduce innovative approaches and technologies in up to 8 projects through innovative Public Private Partnerships” (GIZ 2012 Fact Sheet). Furthermore, this component intends to improve the city’s financial sustainability of the water and sanitation service delivery, by enabling a decision making process based on cost-efficiency and long-term planning (see also financing).

Component 3 deals with knowledge management, communication and awareness raising among all relevant stakeholders (see also awareness raising in water supply or awareness raising in wastewater treatment). Besides acting as facilitator in the learning process during the implementation of the NUSP, “GIZ is also supporting the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MoHRD) in implementing the National School Sanitation Initiative (NSSI).

 

The National School Sanitation Initiative

(Adapted from NSSI 2013)

Schools are considered to be the most important and basic links to the young generation, with a definite reach to parents, individual families and consequently the community. Recognising the key significance of sanitation and the role of students as agents of change, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) in collaboration with Ministry of Human Resource Development (MoHRD), Ministry of Urban Development (MoUD) and GIZ launched the National School Sanitation Initiative in 2009. The aim of the NSSI is to produce tangible improvements in sanitation facilities in schools as well as changes in hygiene practices of children, teachers, principals, administrative staff and parents. This shall create a behavioural and attitudinal change towards sanitation and hygiene within the entire society.

Under this initiative it is made mandatory for all schools to focus on the practical aspects of sanitation in its right perspective, laying emphasis on personal hygiene, proper sanitation, clean toilet habits, safe drinking water, separate toilets for girl students, disposal of wastewater, wastewater recycling, waterless urinals, waste segregation and composting, food hygiene, creation and conservation of green spaces, etc.

Schools are requested to register on a website (www.schoolsanitation.com) and fill in a gender-sensitive questionnaire regarding their current sanitation situation to get a feedback on how to improve. As a result, schools receive a rating in five colour categories corresponding to infrastructure, institutional responsibility, environmental sustainability, health and hygiene and pedagogics. According to the rating achieved, certificates are being issued to the respective schools. If a school improves its rating after four months a new certificate can be requested.

Through the online rating a database is created that allows statistical statements on the sanitation situation in Indian Schools. At the same time the initiative seeks to support schools in concrete improvement measure by providing manuals, handbooks, e-learning and other materials.

References

DUBE, R. (2012): City Sanitation Plans: Experiences and Perspectives of State and ULBs in India. National Workshop on Improving Services in Urban Water Supply and Sanitation New Delhi, July 9-10, 2012. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ).

GIZ (2011): Fact Sheet City Sanitation Plans, India. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). URL [Accessed: 31.10.2012].

GIZ (2012): Introduction to GIZ in India. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). URL [Accessed: 31.10.2012].

GIZ (2012): Fact Sheet Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP), India. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). URL [Accessed: 31.10.2012].

NSSI (Editor) (2013): National School Sanitation Initiative. New Delhi: Ministry of Urban Development India. URL [Accessed: 14.03.2013].

PANESAR, A.; DUBE, R.; SRIVASTAVA, S.K.; PANSE, D. (2011): Case India: Supporting the Indian National Urban Sanitation Policy (BMZ-GIZ). Stockholm World Water Week, August 2011. Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). URL [Accessed: 31.10.2012].

WALTHER, D. (2012): Support to the National Urban Sanitation Policy (NUSP). Eschborn: Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ). URL [Accessed: 05.11.2012].

For further readings, case studies, awareness raising material, training material, important weblinks or the related powerpoint presentation, see www.sswm.info/category/step-support-national-urban-sanitation-policy-india/introduction/about